This article covers the country – for other meanings see Indien
|General useful information|
|Note: some data are of constant value, while other are due to changes, fluctuations etc.|
|Nation and population|
|official name (short form): Bharat|
|country code ISO: IN //; – FIPS: IN|
|location: South Asia|
|time zone: +5:30 UT|
|surface (land) area: 3165596 sq.km = 1222243 sq.mi //; – area incl. inland waters: sq.km = sq.mi|
|geographical position in extreme co-ordinates: North: 37° N / South: 8° N / East: 97° E / West: 68° E|
|borders (land): Pakistan, China, Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar, Bangladesh|
|borders (coastline): Indian Ocean|
|climate: subtropical and tropical, with in the far north variations according to altitude|
|independent since: 1947-08-15|
|type of government: republic|
|capital: New Delhi|
|administrative division: state (24), union territory (6), national capital territory (1)|
|population according to the latest census (2001): 1027015,247|
|total population according to the estimate of midyear 2000: 1014003,817; or: 1015923,000|
|population density: 324 per sq.km = 840 per sq.mi|
|population growth: 2,1% //; – doubling time: 42 years|
|birth rate: 24 – 27 per 1000|
|death rate: 9 – 10 per 1000|
|fertility rate: 4 children per female|
|maternal mortality: 340 per 100,000|
|infant mortality (1-4 years): 98 per 1000|
|life expectancy: 63 years (male: 62; female: 64)|
|age breakdown: 0-14 years: 37% //; – 15-59 years: 56% //; – 60+ years: 7%|
|urbanisation: 28% //; – urbanisation growth: 3%|
|percentage of urban population in the greatest city: 6%|
|Ethnic composition, language, religion|
|ethnic groups: Indo-Aryan (Caucasoid) 72%; Dravidian (Aboriginal) 25; others (Mongoloid) 3|
|languages: Hindi 30% (official +English); Telugu 8%; Bengali 8%; Marati 8%; Tamil 7%; Urdu 5%; plus more than 70 other|
|religious affiliation: Hindu 83%, Sunnî Musim 11, Christian 2, Sikh 2, Buddhist 1|
|daily food intake: 2466 calories per capita|
|population with access to safe water: 81%|
|people per physician: 2460|
|people per hospital bed:|
|school enrolment: primary education 6-11 years: 98%|
|school enrolment: secondary education: 43%|
|school enrolment: tertiary education 20-24 years: 6%|
|adult literacy: 52 – 57% (male: %; female: %)|
|Economy and infrastructure|
|Economy and trade|
|currency: Rupee= 100 paise|
|annual inflation rate: 8%|
|population below poverty line: 35%|
|Gross Domestic Product: USD 340 per capita|
|GNI USD 450 per capita //; – [ppp: 2340]|
|GDP growth: 4%|
|income: USD 330 per capita|
|import: USD 28655 per capita //; – export: USD 26330 per capita|
|trade: USD 44 per capita //; – or 20% of GDP|
|trade partners: US JP CIS DE GB|
|human development index: 0,571 //; – position of the country in the world no.: 115|
|female labour force: 32%|
|tourism: 2,6 million|
|Economic activities in agriculture, fisheries, industry, mining, services, energy|
|land use: arable land: 57% //; – grass land: 4% //; – wooded area: 22% //; – arid land and desert: ca 10 – 15%|
|agriculture: labour force: 63% //; – part of agriculture in GDP: 31%|
|agricultural products: wheat, sugar cane, rice, millet, sorghum, jute, barley, tea, cattle, spices, cashews, cotton, potatoes, oilseed|
|livestock (million): asses: 1 / camels: 1 / cattle: 219 / buffalo 94 / goats: 123 / pigs: 16,5 / poultry: 402 / sheep: 58|
|fish catch: 3316815 – 5380000 metric tonnes|
|industry: labour force: 11% //; – part of industry in GDP: 27%|
|industrial products: textiles, chemicals, petroleum products, jute, cement, fertilizers, food processing, steel|
|mining products: coal, iron ore, lead, zinc, diamonds, oil & natural gas, bauxite, chromite, copper, manganese, mica, titanium|
|CO2 emission per capita: 1,1|
|services: labour force: 27% //; – part of services in GDP: 42%|
|energy use (kg per capita): 482|
|electricity use (per capita): 379|
|annual water use (per capita): 612|
|road network: 2358629 km //; – of which paved: 50% //; – of which are motorways: 34000 km|
|vehicles: 3 per 1000|
|railways: 62809 km //; – railways passenger/km: 319400|
|navigable inland waterways: 19145 km|
|ownership telephone: 17 – 27 per 1000|
|ownership radio receivers: 121 – 132 per 1000|
|ownership tv-sets: 75 – 147 per 1000|
|newspaper circulation: per 1000|
|persons per post office: 6130|
|personal computers: 4,5 per 1000|
|Some physical landmarks|
|mountains: Kangchenjunga 8598 m, Nanda Devi 7816, Kamet 7756, Nunkun 7135, Shilla 7026|
|lowest point: sea level|
|lakes (natural): none, unimportant small ones, or unknown|
|lakes (artificial reservoirs): some artificial lakes|
|lakes (deepest): unknown|
|rivers: Ganges, Narmada, Godavari, Krishna, Yamuna, Brahmaputra|
|caves: longest system: unknown / deepest:|
|islands: Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Lakshadweep|
|other natural features:|
|Additional remarks, especially on the statistical information|
|other important features:|
|apart from physical landmarks most of the above figures are changeable, in most cases they date from the 1990’s|
|primary sources used for the general information:|
|BB CA EV PW WA WB WR, and some national statistical yearbooks|
|particulars concerning population data:|
India, officially the Republic of India , is acountry in South Asia . It is located on the IndustanPeninsula , south of the Himalayas, east of the ArabianSea , west of the Bay of Bengal and north of the Indian Ocean. It is bordered by thestates of Pakistan, the People’s Republicof China, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Myanmar (Burma) and has a total coastline length of 7,517 km. It is divided into 29 states and 7 allied territories, and the capital of the state itself is Delhi. India is the seventh largest country in the world and the second largest.
Here in ancient times a number of civilizationswere born , most especially along the IndusRiver Valley, which subsequently developed trade and enriched the cultural heritage of mankind for centuries.Four of the most professed religions are emerging in India – world-class Buddhism and Hinduism, as well as regionally important Sikism and Jainism. Indian culture was also enriched with the arrival of Zoroastricism, Christianity, Judaism and Islam by the year 1000. Hr. Between the X and XII centuries in the Indian subcontinent was created the strong Mogol Empire. Although made up of tributary kingdoms ruled by maharajahs, raji, tacuri and ebobi, the empire possessed great economic power and produced a quarter of the world’s production until the 18th century. It then became a Britishcolony , entirely under the control of the British East India Company. In 1947 the country succeeded peacefully in achieving its independence.
India is a parliamentary democracy within a federal republic. Its economy is the 11th largest in terms of nominal GDP and 4th in purchasing power parity,but still has very high levels of illiteracy and corruption,and a large part of its population suffers from malnutrition and diseases.Despite its problems, however, it is a worldwide technological force with its own spaceprogram – it has a nuclear weapon and the third largest army in the world.
History of India
The official name of the country, India, derives from the ancient Persian word singhu – the historical name of the Indus River. The Constitution of India recognises the official use of the name Bharat, which derives from the Sanskrit name of an ancient Indian king whose history is described in the Mahabharata epic. The third name, Hindustan, was used to name the country during the time of the Empire of great mounds, but did not enjoy official status.
Minakshi Amman Temple in Madurai, built in the early 17th century
Early civilizations in the Indus River Valley occurred about two thousand years before the emergence of Ancient Greece. Even then, the aryan tribe determined in many ways the further development of civilizations in the region. From the Arias remained vedic knowledge and traditions, dividing society into castes,the doctrine of karma and sanskrit language. However, the first settlements appeared long before that, around 9000 BC. A.D., which eventually formed civilization along the Indus River Valley. It lasted until about 500 BC. A.D., when it began to crumble and the formation of a number of small countries known as mahaja attacks.
By the 3th century BC, Hr. the small states in the territory of almost all of present-day India are united under the control of the Mauri Empire,whose heyday was under the rule of Ashoka the Great. After the 3th century Hr. the Gupta dynasty came to power,thanks to which India entered its golden age.At the same time , other empires appeared in southern India – those of Chalukya, Chola and Vijayanagara. Philosophy , mathematics , literature , astronomy , medicine , art and religion are developing in allthese empires.
Between the 10th and 12th centuries , Muslim invaders from Central Asia began to enter the Indian subcontinent ,consolidating their power in northern India and creating the extremely strong Mogol Empire. Emperor Akbar the Great turned his country into a powerful economic and cultural force, while managing to keep the peace between the hundreds of different peoples and religions within it.
In the 16th century, Europeansfrom different countries – Portugal, Britain , the Netherlands andFrance – set up their own commercial companies and networks in India, which began supplying the European market with Indian goods, mostly tea and spices. By the middle of the 19th century, the British East India Company had managed to impose a monopoly on trade in India.In 1857, an uprising broke out against the East India Company. It failed to remove British control over local trade, but to some extent shaken the company’s position. As a result, India was converted into direct possession of the British Crown. By the early 20th century, several independence movements were formed, with the strongest since 1900. Indian National Congress. Mahatma Gandhi led millions of Indians to peaceful processions against foreign rule.
On August 15, 1947, India gained its independence, but from it the Muslim-populated territories were separated, thus forming the state of Pakistan.On January 26th , 1950 , the country was declared a republic and its first constitution entered into force.
Since then, India has fought wars against religious extremists on its territory, fought Pakistan (wars in 1947, 1965, 1971 and 1999) and China (1962), tried to establish control over the disputed Territory of Jammu and Kashmir, and suffered a number of terrorist attacks organised by various groups. In 1971, India sent troops to help East Pakistan (present-day Bangladesh)declare its independence from Pakistan.
Three years later (1974), the Indian army conducted the country’s first nuclear test, which makes India a significant player on the international political stage. Since 1991, economic reforms have also been undertaken that make the country one of the fastest growing in the world.
Geography of India
A look at Kangchendzönga (8,598m), the third highest peak in the world, from West Bengal
India is located on the great Asian peninsula of Hindustan ,also called the Indian subcontinent. The peninsula is deep in the Indian Ocean , between the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. Along them stretch narrow plains.
The relief of India is extremely diverse – high mountains, vast plains and plateaus, swampy lowlands and dry desert areas. Much of India occupies the highest mountains on Earth , the Himalayas. Their majestic ridges are a massive geological and climatic barrier that runs almost all over northern India, along 2,300 km. The Himalayas are young folded mountains that continue to rise as a result of the powerful tectonic movement (in the north direction) of the Hindu Litospheric Plate. In the Himalayas lies the highest point of India – Kangchengzönga Peak (8598 m). At the northernmost end of the country rises part of the ridges of the high lowland Karakorum.
Topographic map of India
To the south of the Himalayas stretches a vast area of low lands called the Indo-Ganges Plain. Many of them occupy the valleys of the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers. Their bay terraces and their common delta (the largest in the world – about 80,000 km2) are covered with thick nasal layers on which fertile allovial-meadow soils have developed. Most of the rivers that cut through the plains spring out of the Himalayas. Among them is the largest Indian river – the Ganges, whose waters ied part of the territory of India.
The wide and slow-flowing Ganges River, 2500 km long, forms a vast flat lowland located on the territory of India and Bangladesh. The lowland of the Ganges is the most populous place in the country. The area is often subject to catastrophic flooding and strong typhoons.
The complete opposite of the Ganges lowland is the dry sand desert tar to the northwest, crossed by the border of India and Pakistan. To the south of the Northern Plains almost the entire Peninsula of Hindustan is occupied by the Dean Plateau (about 600 m bc) On both sides rise the coastal horst mountains East and West Ghati, which end with steep stepped slopes to the coast.
With the exception of mountains and desert areas, india dominates the sub-climatic, monsoon climate. In northeastern India, in the Shilong Plateau (1300 m A.D.), is the village of Terapunji – the rain most rainy place on Earth – the average annual rainfall here reaches 12,000 mm.
Politics of India
India is a federal republic. The head of state isthe president – elected for five years. The executive branch belongs to him. The supreme legislature is the two-chamber parliament: The lower house – Lok Shabha (People’s Chamber) is elected by the population for 5 years; The Upper Chamber – Raja Shabha (Council of States) is elected by the representatives of the states for 6 years; 12 deputies are appointed by the President; One-third of MPs are re-elected every 2 years. The government is appointed by the President and is responsible to the National Palace. At the head of every state is agovernor appointed by the president. Each state has its own legislation, assembly and government.
India’s Diplomatic Mission to Bulgaria
From 2009 to 2014 ambassador was Divyabh Manchanda
From 2014 to 2017, the Ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary was H. B. Rajesh Sachdeva.
As of 2017, the Ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary is H. R. Miss Puja Kapoor.
Armed Forces of India
India maintains the third largest army in the world (numbering over 1.3 million people), whose main branches for ground troops, air force and navy. During the Cold War, the country maintainedgood relations with the USSR -and then with Russia – allowing it to equip itself with military equipment as well as develop a strong military-industrial complex. Today, India is a manufacturer of high-tech military equipment – fighter jets, tanks,ballistic missiles and other types of missiles,armored fighting vehicles and others. Its military-industrial complex maintains programs for the development and production of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons.
Provinces of India
Administrative division of India
India has 29 states and 7 allied territories. Every state has its own government and governor. The Union territories shall be administered by the President through a representative designated by him.
States and Allied Territories of India
Jammu and Kashmir
Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Dra and Nagar Haveli
Dayan and Diu
Population of India
The country’s population stands at 1.324 billion people (estimated, 2018) and thus India ranks second behind China by population globally. Population density is 407 e/km2. Population growth has decreased slightly over the past few decades to 1.4% per year, corresponding to 15 million people per year. According to UN studies and projections, India will be the most populous country on Earth in 2045. Population growth is due not only to the high birth rate, but also to falling mortality.
According to estimates by World Bank experts, between 1995 and 2010, India’s progress in tackling environmental problems and improving environmental quality is among the fastest in the world. Undoubtedly, this improves the living conditions of the population, yet India continues to face many public health problems. According to the World Health Organization, 900,000 Indians die each year from drinking contaminated drinking water or breathing contaminated air, and 600 million Indians (over half the population) do not have toilets in their homes and go “under open skies”. The number of doctors is very small – there is a doctor per 2000 inhabitants.
India is one of the few countries where the male population is significantly higher: 933 women are per 1,000 men.
The strong migration of the rural population to cities and natural elements is urbanising Indian society more and more. In 2006, the country had more than 34 cities with more than a million inhabitants. Only densely populated Mumbai has more than 20 million inhabitants.
About 25 million Indians or people of Indian descent live outside India. While in the US, Canada and the UK Indians are employed in high-tech sectors, in the Gulf countries they are mostly used as low-paid and underskilled labour. There are also large Indian “colonies” in Singapore, SouthAfrica, Malaysia and other former British colonies.
Language families in India
India is home to two main language families: Indo-Aryan (spoken by about 74% of the population) and Dravidski (spoken by 24% of the population). The other languages spoken in India come from the Austro-Asian and Tibetan-Burmese language families. India has no national language. Hindi ,spoken by the largest number of inhabitants, is the official language of the government. English is widely used in business and administration and has the status of “auxiliary official language”; english is important in education, especially in secondary and higher education. Each state and union territory has one or more official languages, and the constitution formally recognizes 21 “list languages” in which a significant part of the population speaks or which have classical status. India has 1,652 dialects.
Most languages have different graphics systems. While for Hindi, Marathi ,Nepalese, Konkani and Sanskrit, acommon script (devanagari), thentelugu, Tamil, Kannada, Malayalum, Gujarat ,Odiya , Panjabi and Santali have their every script. Bengali graphics are used for Bengali, Assam and Anipuri (Mayteus). Urdu is written in Arabic font, Kashmiri and Singhi are written in Arabic font or in devanagari.
Economics of India
GDP per capita of India (yellow), other BRIC countries and Bulgaria (1984-2009)
The Indian economy is extremely diverse, including traditional agriculture combined with modern agriculture, hand-held products, a wide range of modern industrial activities and an extensive service sector that contributes most to India’s rapid economic development. Between the 1950s and 1980s, economic activity developed on a socialist model, which is why it was more stable, but corruption was widespread and GDP growth was very low.I ndia has an open, dynamic market economy. GDP (PPPs) for the end of 2008 is estimated at 3,319 gdp. 4 in the world after the US, China and Japan.
The workforce amounts to over half a billion people, but only 1 in 5 job applicants has a vocational education. Despite the economic upturn, a huge part of the population continues to live in complete misery, and illiteracy decreases at a very small rate. The largest concentration of people below the poverty line is precisely in India.The country has not been affected by mass starvation, yet about half of Indian children have weight below normal, and 46% of indian children suffer from malnutrition. According to a Goldman Sachs study, national GDP will grow four-fold by 2020, and by 2050 it will be behind that of the US, but India will continue to be a low-income country.
Mumbai is the financial capital of India. Here is located the oldest stock exchange in Asia.
Tea garden in Sikim. India is the second largest tea producer in the world.
Agriculture is at the heart of the Indian economy. It employed about 61% of the working population. There are millions of small farms in the country, as well as tens of thousands of huge plantations where crops are grown for export. India is one of the leading producers of tea, sugar cane, corn, legumes, wheat, peanuts,tobacco (3rd in the world). The country has some of the largest rice paddies in the world and has been meeting its rice needs since the late 1970s. India is a world leader in the production of spices – ginger, nutmeg, etc.
Livestock farming is also highly developed. Bovine animals are mainly reared for milk. Since the cow is a sacred animal in the Hindu religion, only milk is used from it.
In the energy sector, the largest share is energy produced by the TPP,followed by hydrop and PP. Production amounted to EUR 556.8 billion. kWh (2003) The country exports annually 187 million euro. kWh (2003)
In India, the chemical, textile, cement, metallurgical, machine-building industries are developing. The automotive industry is also making progress (seeTATA).
India owns 334 airports (as of 2005) The total length of gas pipelines amounts to 6171 km and the roads are about 3 851 440 km.
Since 1974, India has had an atomic weapon.
India launched its first satellite in 1980.
In 2008, an Indian space agency launched the Chandryan-1 probe, which successfully reached and explored the moon for about a year. On November 14, 2008, a small impact probe was separated from it, which crashed in the south pole area. With this, India became the fourth country to reach the moon (after the USSR, the US and the EU).
On November 5, 2013, India launched the Mangalian space probe to the planet Mars. On September 24, 2014, the probe successfully entered orbit around the red planet, making the country only the fourth country to send a mission to Mars (after the US, the USSR and the EU) and also the only one that succeeded from the first attempt on such a mission.
Culture: Indian culture
Indian cultural history spanned more than 4,500 years. During the Vedic period (about 1700 – 500 BC) the foundations of Hindu philosophy,mythology and literature were created many beliefs and practices that exist today as dharma, karma, yoga and moxa. India is known for its religious diversity with Hinduism, Sikism, Islam, Christianity, Buddhism (which, although rarely seen in India, derives from it), jainism, which are major world religions, with hinduism most prevalent.
In India, a cow is a sacred animal. In Indian culture, when you enter someone’s home, you have to take your own life. When you greet an older person, you gather your palms side by side, then kneel and touch their feet with your fingers — thus demonstrating that you have walked fewer kilometers than them. When you sit at the table with Indians, you need to pour only what you will eat, and not offend the host, leaving something on the plate. Most Indians practice yoga and believe in reincarnation.
Religion: Religion in India
According to a 2001 census, 80.5% of the population professes Hinduism. The second most common religion is Islam, the main one for 13.4% of the population, christianity (2.3%), Sikism (1.9%), Buddhism (0.8%) and other religions (1.1%). Although it makes up a relatively small percentage of the total population, India’s Muslim community is the third largest in the world.